domingo, septiembre 19, 2010

Educación en Finlandia

The Finnish education system is composed of nine-year basic education (comprehensive school), preceded by one year of voluntary pre-primary education; upper secondary education, comprising vocational and general education; and higher education, provided by universities and polytechnics. Adult education is available at all levels.

In Finland, pre-primary education, basic education and upper secondary education and training, complemented by early childhood education and before- and after-school activities, form a coherent learning pathway that supports children's growth, development and well-being.

Students' opportunities to progress from one level of education to the next is safeguarded by legislation. Both general and vocational upper secondary certificates provide eligibility for further studies in universities and polytechnics. A student completing one level is always eligible for the next level studies. The qualifications of each level are governed by a separate Act of Parliament. This assures harmonised qualifications and their quality and guarantees students' rights.

Basic education is free general education provided for the whole age group. Upper secondary education consists of general education and vocational education and training (vocational qualifications and further and specialist qualifications).

During the first years of primary school, grading may be limited to verbal assessments rather than formal grades. The start of numerical grading is decided locally. Most commonly, comprehensive school pupils are issued a report card twice a year: at the ends of the autumn and spring terms. If a comprehensive school pupil receives the grade 4 in one subject at the end of the spring term, they must show by a separate examination at the end of summer term that they have improved in the subject. If the pupil receives multiple failing grades, they may have to retake the year. This, nonetheless, is rare and non-automatic. The decision to have a pupil retake a year is made by the teachers and the headmaster after interviewing the pupil and the parents.

Grades are given on scale from 4 to 10. In individual exams, but not on school year report or basic education certificate, it is also possible to divide the scale further with '½', which represents a half grade, and '+' and '–', which represent one-fourth a grade better or inferior. For example, the order is "9 < 9+ < 9½ < 10– < 10". The grade '10+' can also be awarded for a perfect performance with extra effort by the student.

Compherensive school students enjoy a number of social entitlements, such as school health care and a free lunch everyday that covers about a third of the daily nutritional need.[2] In addition, pupils are entitled to receive free books and materials and free school trips in the event that they have a long or arduous trip to school.

The welfare of Finnish society is built on education, culture and knowledge. All children are guaranteed opportunities for study and self-development according to their abilities, irrespective of their place of residence, language or financial status. All pupils are entitled to competent and high-quality education and guidance and to a safe learning environment and well-being. The flexible education system and basic educational security make for equity and consistency in results.

The Finnish education system is an egalitarian Nordic system, with no tuition fees for full-time students. Attendance is compulsory for nine years starting at age seven, and free meals are served to pupils at primary and secondary levels, where the pupils go to their local school. Education after primary school is divided into vocational and academic systems.

No hay comentarios.: